Monday, November 5, 2012

Science for JSC Exam


cÖkœ : †Kvb †gŠ‡ji AYy GKvwaK cigvYy Øviv MwVZ n‡j Gi ms‡KZ †gŠ‡ji cÖZx‡Ki `w¶‡Y I wb‡P GKwU ¶z`ª msL¨v wPý Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| AvYweK ms‡KZ me©`vB ¯’‚j ms‡K‡Zi mgvb ev Zvi mij ¸wYZ‡Ki mgvb nq|
K. ms‡KZ Kv‡K e‡j?
L. Aw·‡Rb AYyi ms‡KZ O2 Ges mvjwdDwiK GwmW ms‡KZ H2SO4 †KbÑ e¨vL¨v Ki|
M. ms‡KZ wjL : Avqib (ii) bvB‡UªU, cUvwkqvg mvj‡dU, A¨v‡gvwbqvg Kve©‡bU, Kcvi mvj‡dU, g¨vM‡bwmqvg, nvB‡Wªv‡Rb Kve©‡bU, †jW bvB‡UªU|
N. H2SO4 ms‡KZ †_‡K Kx Kx Z_¨ cvIqv hvq eY©bv Ki|
DËi (K)
ms‡KZ : †gŠwjK A_ev †hŠwMK c`v‡_©i AYy‡K ms‡¶‡c cÖZxK Øviv cÖ`k©b Kiv‡K ms‡KZ e‡j|
DËi (L)
Aw·‡Rb AYyi ms‡KZ O2 Ges mvjwdDwiK Gwm‡Wi ms‡KZ H2SO4 KviY Aw·‡R‡bi GKwU AYy‡Z 2wU mswk­ó cigvYy we`¨gvb e‡j Aw·‡Rb AYyi ms‡KZ O2 Ges mvjwdDwiK Gwm‡Wi GKwU AYy‡Z 2wU nvB‡Wªv‡Rb, 1wU mvjdvi Ges 4wU Aw·‡Rb cigvYy we`¨gvb e‡j GwU GKwU †hŠwMK c`v_© Ges Gi ms‡KZ H2SO4|
DËi (M)
†hŠM¸‡jvi ms‡KZ wbæiƒc :
†hŠ‡Mi bvg ms‡KZ
1. Avqib (II) bvB‡UªU Fe (NO3)2
2. cUvwkqvg mvj‡dU K2SO4
3. A¨v‡gvwbqvg Kve©‡bU (NH4)2CO3
4. Kcvi mvj‡dU CuSo4
5. g¨vM‡bwmqvg Mg (HCO3)2
nvB‡Wªv‡Rb Kve©‡bU
6. †jW bvB‡UªU Pb (NO3)2
DËi (N)
¸YMZ Z_¨ :
1| H2SO4 ms‡KZ Øviv GKwU wbw`©ó c`v_© mvjwdDwiK GwmW †evSvq|
2| mvjwdDwiK GwmW (H2SO4) †hŠMwU nvB‡Wªv‡Rb, mvjdvi I Aw·‡R‡bi mgš^‡q MwVZ †evSvq|
cwigvYMZ Z_¨ :
1. H2SO4 Øviv mvjwdDwiK Gwm‡Wi GKwU AYy wb‡`©k K‡i|
2. mvjwdDwiK GwmW (H2SO4)-Gi GKwU AYy‡Z 2 cigvYy nvB‡Wªv‡Rb, 1 cigvYy mvjdvi I 4 cigvYy Aw·‡Rb Av‡Q wb‡`©k K‡i|
3. H2SO4 Øviv mvjwdDwiK Gwm‡Wi AvYweK fi Rvbv hvq| A_©vr H2SO4-Gi AvYweK fi,
= (1~2+32+16~4) = 98|
4. H2SO4 ms‡KZ Øviv mvjwdDwiK Gwm‡Wi Dcv`vb †gŠjmg~‡ni Av‡cw¶K fi Rvbv hvq| A_©vr 98 fvM f‡ii mvjwdDwiK Gwm‡W (H2SO4) 2 fvM f‡ii nvB‡Wªv‡Rb, 32 fvM f‡ii mvjdvi I 64 fvM f‡ii Aw·‡Rb Av‡Q †evSv hvq|

Bmjvg wk¶v

cÖkœ : Zv‡iK I Zvnwgbv fvB‡evb| Iiv `v`xi Kv‡Q ciKvj, RvbœvZ, Rvnvbœvg m¤ú‡K© A‡bK wKQy Rvb‡Z cv‡i| Avj­vni mš‘wó AR©‡bi cyi¯‹vi nj RvbœvZ, Avi cvcx‡`i kvw¯—i ¯’vb nj Rvnvbœvg| Iiv Rvbœv‡Zi wbqvg‡Zi K_v wPš—v K‡i I gv‡S gv‡S ¯^cœI †`‡L| Iiv me mgqB G K_v e‡j, wKfv‡e Avj­vn I Zuvi ivm~‡ji AvbyMZ¨ K‡i RvbœvZ cvIqv hv‡e| Zvnwgbv e‡j mevB hw` Rvbœv‡Zi kvwš— Avi Rvnvbœv‡gi kvw¯—i K_v me mgq wPš—v KiZ, Zvn‡j †KD †Kvb Ab¨vq KiZ bv| mevB Rvbœv‡Zi cÖZ¨vkv KiZ, `ywbqv n‡Zv GKwU kvwš—i Avevm¯’j|
K. Rvbœv‡Zi me©‡kÖô ¯—i †KvbwU?
L. cvcx‡`i Rb¨ †Kgb kvw¯—i e¨e¯’v i‡q‡Q?
M. RvbœvZ †c‡Z n‡j Zv‡iK, Zvnwgbv‡`i Kx Kx Ki‡Z n‡e?
N. ÔmevB RvbœvZ I Rvnvbœv‡gi K_v wPš—v Ki‡j c„w_ex n‡Zv GKwU kvwš—i evm¯’vbÕÑ wKfv‡e? †Zvgvi gZvgZ wjL|
DËi
K. RvbœvZ A_© Ave„Z ¯’vb, D`¨vb| RvbœvZ n‡”Q Pig my‡Li ¯’vb| Rvbœv‡Zi ¯—i AvUwU| AvUwU ¯—‡ii g‡a¨ me©‡kÖô ¯—i RvbœvZzj wdi`vDm|
L. Rvnvbœvg eoB K‡ói ¯’vb| cvcx‡`i Rb¨ †mLv‡b cig kvw¯—i e¨e¯’v i‡q‡Q| †mLv‡b AwMœ cÖR¡wjZ i‡q‡Q, †mB Av¸b kix‡ii nvo †_‡K gvsm c„_K K‡i †dj‡e Avevi bZzb K‡i †mB gvsm I Pvgov m„wó n‡e AveviI †mB kvw¯— cÖ`vb Kiv n‡e| †mLv‡b AMwYZ welv³ mvc I welai we”Qz _vK‡e hv cvcx‡`i `skb Ki‡e| Gfv‡eB Pj‡Z _vK‡e Abš—Kvj|
M. RvbœvZ cig my‡Li ¯’vb| G `ywbqvi Rxeb †kl n‡j ïi“ n‡e AvwLiv‡Zi Rxeb| †mLv‡b gvbyl G `ywbqvi K…ZK‡g©i dj †fvM Ki‡e| hviv Avj­vni Av‡`k-wb‡la †g‡b Pj‡e Zv‡`i Rb¨ i‡q‡Q RvbœvZ| Zv‡iK I Zvnwgbv hw` RvbœvZevmx n‡Z Pvq Z‡e G `ywbqvq Rvwi Kiv Avj­vni me weavb Zv‡`i cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e| Avj­vni g‡bvbxZ ag© Bmjvg‡K m‡e©vËgfv‡e cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e| Avj­vni ûKzg-AvnKvg cvj‡b Ae‡njv Kiv hv‡e bv| Bmjv‡gi me ixwZ-bxwZ ¸i“Z¡mnKv‡i gvb‡Z n‡e| Z‡eB cvIqv hv‡e Avj­vni mš‘wó| Avj­vni mš‘wó jvf Ki‡Z cvi‡jB Zviv RvbœvZ jvf Ki‡Z cvi‡e| ZvB RvbœvZ jvf Ki‡Z n‡j Zv‡`i Avj­vn I Zuvi ivm~‡ji AvbyMZ¨ Ki‡Z n‡e| †bK Avgj Ki‡Z n‡e| ˆ`wbK cuvP Iqv³ mvjvZ Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e, mvIg cvjb, RvKvZ cÖ`vb I nR cvjb diR n‡j Zv Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e| Rxe‡bi me †¶‡Î Avj­vni ûKzg-AvnKvg †g‡b Pj‡Z n‡e Ges mr c‡_ AwePj _vK‡Z n‡e|
Avj­vncv‡Ki f‡q me KzKg© †_‡K wb‡Ri bdm‡K weiZ ivL‡Z n‡e| Avj­vn e‡jb, Ô(†n bex) Avcwb mymsev` w`b, hviv Cgvb G‡b‡Q Ges †bK Avgj K‡i‡Q; wbðqB Zv‡`i Rb¨ i‡q‡Q Ggb RvbœvZ hvi Zj‡`‡k Sibv¸‡jv cÖevwnZ n‡”Q|Õ (m~iv Avj-evKviv 2:25)
Dc‡iv³ Avj­vni evYx †_‡K ej‡Z cvwi, Zv‡iK I Zvnwgbv Avj­vni G evYx Abymi‡Yi gva¨‡g RvbœvZ jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i|
N. BnKvjxb Rxeb †k‡l gvby‡li Rb¨ Avj­vn Zvqvjv Av‡iK Rxe‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i †i‡L‡Qb| †mLv‡b G Rxe‡bi K…ZK‡g©i wnmve-wbKvk Ges djvdj †NvlYv Kiv n‡e| †mLv‡b hvi hvi Kg© Abymv‡i †KD RvbœvZ I †KD Rvnvbœvg jvf Ki‡e| Avgv‡`i Rš§ †hgb mZ¨ †Zgwb g„Zz¨ Awbevh©| Avgiv hw` g„Zz¨i c‡ii Rxe‡bi K_v wPš—v Kwi Zvn‡j †KD Ab¨vq I Aeva¨Zvi m‡½ Rov‡Z cvie bv| `ywbqvq GZ Ab¨vq-AwePvi, we‡Øl, nvbvnvwb, wek„sLjv, Kjn Gme wKQyB _vK‡e bv| cÖwZw`b Aš—Zc‡¶ wekevi g„Zz¨i K_v wPš—v Kiv DwPZ| g„Zz¨i fq, Rvnvbœv‡gi Av¸‡b †cvovi K‡ói K_v †f‡e gvbyl wb‡R‡K wbqš¿Y K‡i Pj‡e| wb‡Ri bd‡mi †ndvhZ Ki‡e| G‡Z wicyi mshg NU‡e| G‡Z wicy‡K `gb Ki‡Z cvi‡j A‡bK Ab¨vq-AbvPvi †_‡K mgvR †invB cv‡e| kqZv‡bi Kzgš¿Yv †_‡KI gvbyl †invB cv‡e| Aciw`‡K RvbœvZ jv‡fi Avkv GKRb e¨w³‡K mr I Av`k© c‡_ Pj‡Z mvnvh¨ Ki‡e| Rvbœv‡Zi Avivg-Av‡qk, myL-kvwš— gvbyl‡K Avj­vn wba©vwiZ c‡_ cwiPvwjZ Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ Ki‡e| my‡Li cik mevB †c‡Z Pvq| myL gvby‡li wPiw`‡bi AvKv•¶v| Avi `ytL-Kó, kvw¯—, Akvwš— gvbyl KLbI †c‡Z Pvq bv| ZvB Dc‡iv³ Av‡jvPbvi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z Avwg ej‡Z cvwi, Avgiv cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³ hw` Rvbœv‡Zi cig myL I Rvnvbœv‡gi Pig kvw¯—i K_v fvwe Z‡e G `ywbqvq †b‡g Avm‡e Awbevh© kvwš—| `~i n‡e Ab¨vq-AwePvi, wnsmv-we‡Øl; m„wó n‡e cvi¯úwiK mym¤úK©; M‡o DV‡e kvwš—i Avevm¯’j|

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