Science has discovered many wonders and computer is one of them. It is an ultra modern electronic device for storing and analyzing information fed into it. It has no capacity to do anything by itself. It works on the basis of commands given by the operator. How invented: Computer was not invented overnight. It took long time and hard labor to invent computer. Many votaries of science worked hard. Thus computer is the result of hard labor of many votaries of science. First of all Pascal invented the theory of “Digital Calculating System” in 1642. Though his attempts were not crowned with success, he initiated the research which paved the way to the invention of computer. Finally Mr. Haward Akin, an American scientist invented such a machine in 193 that could do difficult sums. So the credit for the invention of modern computer goes to Howard Akin. After seven years electric computer was used in Harvard University in 1944. After that many other computers have been invented such as EDSAC in 1945 and ENTACE in 1946 etc.
Major components of a computer: A computer consists of five major components. They are the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit. Functions of a computer: A computer performs three functions:
1. It receives data
2. It processes data by various computations
3. It emits data.
Machine language: Every computer has a machine language of its own and accordingly a computer functions. Machine language is not fixed. It varies from machine to machine. Programmes Written in machine languages are machine dependent and they are only good for that particular machine.
Uses of Computer: Computer is of great use to us. It renders great service to mankind. It is like Aladdin’s magic lamp or magic wand. It has lessened our work loads and made our life easy and comfortable. It is used in our daily life for various purposes.
(i) In education: Computer is media of education in the developed countries. The students of the developed countries use computer to prepare their study materials. They learn many things within the shortest possible time. Results of various examinations are prepared accurately with the help of computer within the shortest span of time.
(ii) In Medical Science Now-days in developed countries computer is used to diagnose a disease, a newer process of operation has been invented by computer as an alternative of surgery. It is used to grind stones in normal pathological tests.
(iii) In Agriculture Today Computer is used in the fields of agriculture in the developed countries. A farmer of America simply puts on the switch of the computer and gets everything done.
(iv) In commerce: Nowadays business, commerce and trade can not be thought of without computer. It does wonder. It is used to prepare documents, to make lists of goods, store information and to prepare budget etc. Management personnel use computer to take decision. The value of currency and price of any share can be known instantly by the computer.
(v) In printing: Today printing can not be thought of without computer. It is an indispensable part of printing. Thousands of books are composed with the help of computer within a very short time.
(vi) In Industrial sector: In the developed countries computer is used to run rails, factories and industries. Trains and planes are run by the computer.
(vii) Source of Income: Computer is a source of great income. Many developed and advanced countries export software and hardware and earn a lot.
Demerits: There are no unmixed blessings on earth. Everything has its dark sides. Computer has its own demerits. It causes diseases like Repetitive Stress Injury and weakens the eye sight of the operators.
Computer in Bangladesh: Of late computer has been introduced in Bangladesh. Many government and non-government offices, educational institutions are using computer. A course on computer has been introduced in secondary and higher secondary levels. The day is not far to come when computers will be used in every sphere of life.
Computer is of great use to us. We can not go a single moment without computers. It is part and parcel in our daily life.