Friday, December 7, 2012

reflexive and ergative verbs

Reflexive verbs

1 The reflexive pronouns (see pronouns) are:
Singular: myself; yourself; himself; herself; itself
Plural: ourselves; yourselves; themselves
We use a reflexive pronoun after a transitive verb (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) when the direct object is the same as the subject of the verb:
I am teaching myself to play the piano.
Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.
These are the verbs most often found with reflexive pronouns:

  • cut
  • dry
  • enjoy
  • hurt
  • introduce
  • kill
  • prepare
  • teach
Some verbs change their meaning slightly when they have a reflexive pronoun as direct object:
  • amuse
  • apply
  • busy
  • content
  • behave
  • blame
  • distance
  • express
  • find
  • help
  • see
Would you like to help yourself to another drink? = Would you like to take another drink?
I wish the children would behave themselves. = I wish the children would behave well.
He found himself lying by the side of the road. = He was surprised when he realised that he was at the side of the road.
I saw myself as a famous actor. = I imagined that I was a famous actor.
She applied herself to the job of mending the lights. = She worked very hard to mend the lights.
He busied himself in the kitchen. = He worked busily in the kitchen.
I had to content myself with a few Euros. = I had to be satisfied with a few Euros.
     
The verb enjoy always has an object:
We all enjoyed the party.
I really enjoyed my lunch.
If enjoy has no other object, we use a reflexive pronoun:
They all enjoyed  They all enjoyed themselves.
I really enjoyed  I really enjoyed myself.
NOTE: We do not use a reflexive pronoun after verbs which describe things people usually do for themselves:
He washed in cold water.
He always shaved before going out in the evening.
Michael dressed and got ready for the party.
We only use reflexives with these verbs for emphasis:
He dressed himself in spite of his injuries.
She’s old enough to wash herself.

Ergative verbs

1. Ergative verbs are both transitive and intransitive:

Peter closed the door   Transitive: N + V + N
The door closed   Intransitive: N + V
I boiled a pan of water   Transitive: N + V + N
The pan boiled   Intransitive: N + V
2. Common ergative verbs are:
  • begin
  • break
  • change
  • close
  • drop
  • crack
  • dry
  • end
  • finish
  • grow
  • improve
  • increase
  • move
  • open
  • shake
  • start
  • stop
  • tear
  • turn
I broke the glass.
I dropped the glass and it broke.
The referee blew his whistle and started the match.
The match started at 2.30.
We grew some tasty potatoes.
The potatoes were growing well.
The wind shook the trees.
The trees shook in the wind.
3. Many verbs to do with cooking are ergative verbs:
  • bake
  • boil
  • cook
  • defrost
  • freeze
  • melt
  • roast
You should roast the meat at 200 degrees centigrade.
The meat was roasting in a hot oven.
I always defrost meat before I cook it.
I am waiting for the meat to defrost.
Melt the chocolate and pour it over the ice cream.
The chocolate was melting in a pan.
4. Verbs to do with vehicles are often ergative:
  • back
  • crash
  • drive
  • fly
  • reverse
  • run
  • sail
  • start
  • stop
I’m learning to fly a plane.
The plane flew at twice the speed of sound.
He crashed his car into a tree.
His car crashed into a tree.
 
5. We use some ergative verbs with only a few nouns:
  • catch: dress, coat, clothes, trousers etc.
  • fire : Gun, pistol, rifle, rocket.
  • play: guitar, music, piano, violin, CD, DVD etc.
  • ring: bell, alarm
She caught her dress on a nail.
Her dress caught on a nail.
He fired a pistol to start the race.
A pistol fired to start the race.

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