Friday, December 7, 2012

phrasal verbs

Some verbs are two part verbs (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases). They consist of a verb and a particle:
  • grow + up
    >> The children are growing up.
Often this gives the verb a new meaning:
  • take + after
    >> She takes after her mother
    = She looks like her mother, or She behaves like her mother.
  • count + on
    >> I know I can count on you
    = I know I can trust you, or I know I can believe you.
Some transitive two part verbs (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) have only one pattern:
N (subject) + V + p + N (object)
[Note: N = noun; V = verb; p = particle]
N (Subject)  Verb Particle  N (Object)
She
I
My father
takes
can count
comes
after
on
from
her mother
you
Madrid

Some transitive two part verbs (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) are phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs have two different patterns:
• The usual pattern is: N + V + N + p
N (Subject) Verb (N) Object Particle
She
He
We
gave
knocked
will be leaving
the money
the glass
our friends and neighbours
back
over
behind

• But sometimes these verbs have the pattern: N (subject) + V + p + N (object)
N (Subject) Verb Particle N (Object)
She
He
We
gave
knocked
will be leaving
back
over
behind
the money
the glass
our friends and neighbours
When the object is a personal pronoun,these verbs always have the pattern:
N + V +N + p:
  • She gave back it
    >> She gave it back
  • He knocked over it
     >> knocked it over
  • We will be leaving behind them
    >> We will be leaving them behind
• Phrasal verbs are nearly always made up of a transitive verb and a particle. Common verbs with their most frequent particles are:
bring: about, along, back, forward, in, off, out, round, up
buy: out, up
call: off, up
carry: off, out
cut: back, down, off, out, up
give: away, back, off
hand: back, down, in, on out, over, round
knock: down, out, over
leave: behind, out
let: down, in, off, out
pass: down, over, round
point: out
push: about, around, over
put: across, away, down, forward, off, on, out, through, together, up
read: out
set: apart, aside, back, down
shut: away, in, off, out
take: apart, away, back, down, in, on, up, over
think: over, through, up
   

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