Friday, December 7, 2012

Adverbs

how often

The commonest adverbials of frequency are:
always never normally occasionally often
rarely seldom sometimes usually  
We usually put adverbials of frequency in front of the main verb:
We often spend Christmas with friends.
I have never enjoyed myself so much.
but they usually come after the verb be:
He was always tired in the evening.
We are never late for work.
We use the adverbial a lot to mean often or frequently. It comes at the end of the clause:
We go to the cinema a lot.
but before another time adverbial:
We go to the cinema a lot at the weekend.
We use much with a negative to mean not often:
 We don’t go out much. (= We don’t go out often)
We use how often or ever to ask questions about frequency. How often comes at the beginning of the clause:
How often do you go to the cinema?
How often have you been here?
ever comes before the main verb:
Do you ever go to the cinema at the weekend?
Have you ever been there?
Longer frequency phrases, like every year or three times a day usually come at the end of the clause:
I have an English lesson twice a week.
She goes to see her mother every day.

already, still, yet and no longer

We use still to show that something continues up to a time in the past present or future. It goes in front of the main verb:
The children still enjoyed playing games.
They are still living next door.
We will still be on holiday.
… or after the present simple or the past simple of be:
Her grandfather is still alive.
They were still unhappy.
We use already to show that something has happened sooner than it was expected to happen. Like still, it comes before the main verb:
The car is OK. I’ve already fixed it.
It was early but they were already sleeping.
… or after the present simple or past simple of the verb be:
It was early but we were already tired.
We are already late.
We use yet in a negative or interrogative clause, usually with perfective aspect (especially in British English), to show that something has not happened by a particular time. yet comes at the end of the sentence:
It was late, but they hadn’t arrived yet.
Have you fixed the car yet?
She won’t have sent the email yet.

adverbials of probability

Adverbials of probability

We use adverbials of probability to show how certain we are about something. The most frequent adverbials of probability are:
certainly - definitely - maybe - possibly
clearly - obviously - perhaps - probably

maybe and perhaps usually come at the beginning of the clause:
Perhaps the weather will be fine.
Maybe it won’t rain.
Other adverbs of possibility usually come in front of the main verb:
He is certainly coming to the party.
Will they definitely be there?
We will possibly come to England next year.
but in after am, is, are, was, were:
They are definitely at home.
She was obviously very surprised.
We can use comparative adverbs to show change or to make comparisons:
I forget things more often nowadays.
She began to speak more quickly.
They are working harder now.
We often use than with comparative adverbs
I forget things more often than I used to.
Girls usually work harder than boys.

Intensifiers:

We use these words and phrases as intensifiers with these patterns:
much - far - a lot - quite a lot - a great deal - a good deal - a good bit - a fair bit
I forget things much more often nowadays.

Mitigators:

We use these words and phrases as mitigators:
a bit - just a bit - a little - a little bit - just a little bit - slightly
She began to speak a bit more quickly
We can use superlative adverbs to make comparisons:
His ankles hurt badly, but his knees hurt worst.
It rains most often at the beginning of the year.

Intensifiers:

When we intensify a superlative adverb we often use the in front of the adverb, and we use these words and phrases as intensifiers:
easily - much - far - by far


 


 


 

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