Saturday, April 28, 2012

Rules of Transformation of Sentence for JSC Exam





Affirmative sentence
            Negative sentence
   every+ noun
Every rose has a thorn.
All must die.
everybody
   There is no (Every c‡ii Ask)+but+verb+……………..
 There is no+( Every c‡ii Ask)+who/which +auxiliary verb +not+ verb
    There is no rose which does not have any thorn.
   There is no one who will not die.
                     only  (e¨w³
Only the rich are always happy.
only (e¯‘/welqevPK kã Gi †¶‡Î)

              only (msL¨v)
It is only 10 pm.
                                            none but
                 None but the rich are always happy.
                                         nothing but

                          not more than/not less than
             It is not more than 10 pm.
as soon as
                                        no sooner than
always(memgq)
                                       Never (KLbI bv)
Sometimes (gv‡Sgv‡S)
     do not always/does not always/did not always/not always
      too +adjective/adverb +to
He is too dishonest to speak the truth.
so +adjective/adverb+ that + g~j ev‡K¨i sub +can not/could not
                 He is so dishonest that he cannot speak the truth.
too+ adjective/adverb+ for +noun/ pronoun +to
The problem was too  tough for us to solve
so +adjective/adverb+ that +for Gi c‡ii noun/pronoun subjective form+ cannot +verb
          The problem was so tough that we could not solve.
must/has to/have to/need to
can not but/can not help+ verb+ing
had to /needed to
could not but/could not help
both….and…
not only…..but also
as…..as
not less…..than  or no less-----than
less….than
not as…as
                   as soon as
As soon as the teacher entered the classroom, the student stood up.
           No sooner …..than +wØZxq clause
No sooner had the teacher entered the classroom than the students stood up.
hardly ….when/before.
No sooner …..than + wØZxq clause
Scarcely …..when
no sooner …..than + wØZxq clause
                   many
She has written many letters.
                   not a few
She has not written a few letters.
                 many a
                    not a few
                   a few
The boy had eaten a few mangoes.
                    not many(msL¨v)
The boy had not eaten many mangoes.
                   few
                    not a single (GKwU I b‡n)
                a little
                   not much(cwigvY)
                 little
                   not a least(we›`ygvÎ)









                    much
     You have helped me much.
                                  not a little(cwigvY)
       You have not helped me a little.
              Very much
                 Negative +at all
                   superlative
The Padma is the largest river in Bangladesh.
               no other+…….as/so+ positive form +as
      No other river in Bangladesh is as large as the Padma.
         comparative degree
       Akbar was as strong as a lion
             ….not +as+ positive form +as……………..
            A lion was not stronger than Akbar.
             Or Akbar was not less than a lion.
for the last time
 (‡kl ev‡ii g‡Zv)
                 never….again
for ever (wPiZ‡i)
               never…again
for good(wPiZ‡i)
                 never…again
                           Besides
Affirmative: Besides all the mangoes, we also ate the apples.
                            Not only …..but also
We ate not only all the mangoes, but also all the apples.


  Assertive sentence
              Interrogative Sentence
To be verb
A‡_©i cwieZ©b bv K‡i mvnvh¨Kvix verb hy³ Assertive sentence ‡K  Interrogative G iƒcvšÍi Kivi mgq hw` Sentence  wU Affirmative  nq Zvn‡j wbqgwUt



To be verb+ Subject +not + subject+evKx  Ask?
Or To be verb +n’t(not) + subject+evKx Ask?
Negative A_©‡evaK Assertive Sentence  †K Interrogative Kivi mgq Negative kãwU D‡V hvq Ges mvnvh¨Kvix verb wU cÖ_‡g e‡m|

Affirmative: You do not know me well.
Negative: Do you know me well?
Auxiliary verb  (mvnvh¨vKvix wµqv ) wenxb Present Indefinite Tense n‡j
Don’t /does not+ subject +verb+ evKx Ask?
Auxiliary verb  (mvnvh¨vKvix wµqv ) wenxb Past Indefinite Tense n‡j
Didn’t +subject +verb(Present form)+ evKx Ask?
Assertive sentence G Donot/doesnot/didn’t
Do not /doesnot /didn’t _vK‡jInterrogative sentence  Kivi mgq not ev` hvq+ Sentence Gi ïi“‡Z Do /Does/Did+subject+verb+ evwK Ask?
   ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z
   None ¯’‡j
         Who + verb +sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev,Can any one/could any one+ sentence
         Gi evwK Ask?
  ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z
  No one ¯’‡j
        Who +verb +sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev, Can any one/does any one+ verb+
          sentence Gi evwK Ask?



ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z
 Nobody ¯’‡j
   Who +sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev,Can any body/could any body/Does anybody+ verb+ sentence Gi evwK Ask?
 ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z
No man ¯’‡j
        Who +verb+sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev,Can any man/could any man+ does
        any man/did any man+ verb+sentence
        Gi evwK Ask?
ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z
No person ¯’‡j
         Who +sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev, Can any person /could any person+
           verb+ sentence Gi evwK Ask?

ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z
None ¯’‡j
         Who +verb +sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev, Can any one/could any body+ verb +sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev, Does any one/did any one+ verb+
        sentence Gi evwK Ask?
A_ev, Is any one/Is any body+ verb+
         sentence Gi evwK Ask?
ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z Everybody  Everyone , Every man, All /All men+ verb   _vK‡j
Who does not/who did not/who can
not/who could not+ verb+ sentence Gi evwK Ask?
ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z Everybody  Everyone , Every man, All/All men+ ‘to be verb (am, is, are, was, were )  _vK‡j
 Who is not/who was not + sentence Gi evwK
   Ask?


Every+Noun
Every mother
Every father
Every person

A_ev All w`‡q evK¨ ïi“ n‡j......
Is there any+ noun+ who does not +verb+
  sentence Gi evwK Ask?
Or,
Is there any+ noun+ who will not not+ verb+ sentence Gi evwK Ask?
ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z There is no+ noun
What+verb+ sentence Gi evwK Ask?
ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z There is nobody
Who+verb+ sentence Gi evwK Ask?
There is no use+…noun
What is the use of + sentence Gi evwK Ask?
There is nobody +adjective+ than
Who is + adjective +than+……..?
ev‡K¨i ïi‡Z It is of no use

Nothing but
Anything
No thing but
What ……but?
Universal truth (wPišÍb mZ¨)
Negative interrogative sentence
Sometimes
Did not always/does not always/do not always
Never (KLb I bv)
Ever (wPiw`b)


        Assertive sentence
                 Imperative sentence
First person(I, we,)/third person(He, she, Karim, they) w`‡q ïi“ n‡j
Let+ sub Gi objective form +verb (present form) + evwK Ask
First person(I, we,)/third person(He, she, Karim, they) w`‡q ïi“ n‡jt
Subject+ I….
Subject+ We….
Subject+3rd Person (He, she, they)
Let+ sub Gi objective form +not+ verb (present form)+ evwK Ask
(LetGi ci pronoun Gi objective case nq I verb mv‡_ s/es hy³ nq bv|)
Subject+ me+ Principal verb
Let+ us+ Principal verb
Let +3rd Person +Principal verb
You do not+ verb
Don’t +verb
You must +verb
verb+ evwK Ask +evwK Ask
You must not +verb
Don’t +verb + evwK Ask
You ought to +verb+
verb+ evwK Ask
You ought not to +verb
Don’t +verb+ evwK Ask
You should not+ verb
Don’t +verb+ evwK Ask
You are requested to+ verb
Verb+ evwK Ask +,Please.
Or Please+ Verb+ evwK Ask
You are requested not to +verb
Do not+ Verb+ evwK Ask, Please.
Please, Do not+ Verb+ evwK Ask
You should always +verb
Always +verb+ evwK Ask
You should never +verb
Never +verb+ evwK Ask
We should+ verb
Let’s +verb+ evwK Ask
I request you to +verb
Please + verb +object/complement
I advise you to +verb+
Please +verb+ object/complement
You should+ verb +object
Please +verb +object/complement
You are wanted to+ verb+ object
Verb +object



        Assertive sentence
              Exclamatory sentence

What +a/an+ adjective /adverb +adjunct +subject+ aux. verb (am /is/are/ was/ were)/ main verb+! (Exclamation mark)
I wish I were+
Had I been +(hv nZvg)!
Or, If I were+(hv nZvg)!
Or, Were +I +(hv nZvg)!
Or, Would that I were+(hv nZvg)!
I wish I had+
I earnestly desire to +verb+ other words.
Had +I+(hv _vKZ)!
Or, If I had+(hv _vKZ)!
Would that I had+(hv _vKZ)!
very/a lot of
How+ adjective/adverb+….+sub +verb!
a very/a great/a most
What a/an+ adjective/adverb+….+sub +verb!
Sub+ wish +to……+
Subject+ desire to….+
Subject+ long for…
Subject+ want to….


If +subject +could +verb +evwK Ask!
We rejoice that
Hurrah!+ sentence Gi evwK Ask.
It is a matter of joy that
Hurrah!+ sentence Gi evwK Ask
It is a matter of great pleasure that
Hurrah!+ sentence Gi evwK Ask
We are happy that
Hurrah!+ sentence Gi evwK Ask
It is a great joy that
Bravo!  sentence Gi evwK Ask
I regret that
Alas! + sentence Gi evwK Ask
It is a matter of sorrow that
Alas! + sentence Gi evwK Ask
We are sorry that
Alas! + sentence Gi evwK Ask
It is said that
Alas! + sentence Gi evwK Ask


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