Saturday, June 16, 2012

Rules and Practice:Transformation of sentence

কিছু কায়দা-কানুন জানা থাকলেই Transformation of Sentences অংশে ভালো করা যায়। এ নিয়ে বিশেষ এই লেখা
Transformation : Transformation is a process of changing the form/pattern of a sentence without changing its basic meaning. In other words, it is a method of expressing the same meaning/concept in a different way.

Simple to Complex :
A. Transformation of Subject + verb + too + adjective/ adverb (without infinitive) to principal clause + than + adverb clause

1. It is too hot. (Simple Sentence)
It is hotter than it should be
(Complex Sentence)
2. She is too weak (Simple Sentence)
She is weaker than she should be
(Complex Sentence)
3. He speaks too loudly
(Simple Sentence)
He speaks more loudly than he should be (Complex Sentence)
Guidelines :
i) too is left out
ii) adjective/ adverb is put into the comparative form
iii) adverb clause begins with than than.

B. Transformation of Subject + verb + too + adjective/adverb + infinitive to principal clause (with so/ such) + that + adverb clause
1. He is too poor to buy a meal (Simple Sentence)
He is so poor that he can�t buy a meal (Complex Sentence)
2. He is too weak to run fast (Simple Sentence)
He is so weak that he can�t run fast (Complex Sentence)
3. It was too long a talk to hold the interest of the listeners
(Simple Sentence)
It was such a long talk that it could not hold the interest of the listeners
(Complex)
Guidelines :
i) too is replaced by so/such
too poor (so poor)
too long a talk (such a long talk)
ii) infinitive is changed into that + negative adverb clause of result :
to buy a meal (he can�t buy a meal)
iii) adverb clause is negative because the negative sense of too is transferred to it.

C. Transformation of Subject + verb + adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive to Principal clause (with so) + that + adverb clause
1. He is talented enough to compose his own songs (Simple Sentence)
He is so talented that he can compose his own songs (Complex Sentence)
2. He is strong enough to push the trunk (Simple Sentence)
He is so strong that he can push the trunk (Complex Sentence)
Guidelines :
i) enough is replaced by so : rich enough (so rich)
ii) infinitive is changed into that + positive adverb clause of result : to compose his own songs (that he can compose his own songs)
iii) adverb clause is positive as the positive sense of enough is transferred to it: strong enough to push the trunk (so strong that he can push the trunk). 
Transformation of Sentences


[ Transformation of affirmative to negative sentence

1. She is innocent. (affirmative)
She is not guilty. (negative)
2. He is no mean poet. (negative)
He is a great poet. (affirmative)
3. No sooner did he go to bed than he fell asleep. (negative)
As soon as he went to bed he fell asleep. (affirmative)
4. Only a coward would say so.
(affirmative)
None but a coward would say so.
(negative)
Guidelines :
affirmative into negative :
i) affirmative word is removed.
ii) opposite of the key word is used.

negative into affirmative :
i) negative word is removed.
ii) opposite of the key word is used.

Transformation of Degree
Transformation from positive to comparative degree
i) This car is as big as that. (positive)
That car is not bigger than this. (comparative)
ii) He is as tall as her. (positive)
She is not taller than him.
(comparative)
iii) She is as rich as me. (positive)
I am not richer than her. (comparative)

Guidelines :
i) as�..as/so��..as is left out
ii) adjective/adverb is put into the comparative form and than is used.
iii) the affirmative sentence is made negative and the negative affirmative.

Transformation from comparative to superlative degree
any other
i) He is better than any other boy in the class. (comparative)
He is the best boy in the class. (superlative)
ii) He is richer than all other men. (comparative)
He is the richest man. (superlative)

Guidelines :
i) any other/all other is left out.
- the comparative is changed into the superlative degrees : the + superlative + of /in + noun
- than any other boy in the class (the best boy in the class)

Most other
1. She is taller than most other girls.
(comparative)
She is one of the tallest girls. (superlative)
2. Mango is sweeter than most other fruits. (comparative)
Mango is one of the sweetest fruits. (superlative)

3. He was greater than most other men. (comparative)
He was one of the greatest men. (superlative)
Guidelines :
i) most other is replaced by one of the.
ii) comparative is replaced by superlative + plural noun.
greater than (one of the greatest).
more powerful than (one of the most powerful).
Keats was one of the greatest poets. (not, poet)
Transformation of Sentences
[গতকালের পর]
Transformation from positive to superlative degree

no other
i. No other poet is as great as Kazi Nazrul Islam. (positive)
Kazi Nazrul Islam is the greatest poet in Bangladesh. (Superlative)
2. No other fruit is as sweet as a mango. (positive)
Mango is the sweetest fruit. (superlative)
Guidelines :
i) No other and as� as are left out.
ii) positive degree is changed into superlative.

Very few
i) Very few poets are as great as Shakespeare. (positive)
Shakespeare is one of the greatest poets. (superlative)
ii) Very few students are as helpful as Mita. (positive)
Mita is one of the most helpful students. (Superlative)
iii) Very few books are as good as this. (positive)
This is one of the best books. (superlative)
Guidelines :
i. very few is left out
ii. positive degree is changed into superlative + plural noun
iii) as�as is replaced by one of the + plural noun
one of the greatest poets. (not, poet)
one of the most helpful students (not, student).

Transformation of statement into exclamation
A. very/what/how
i. It is a very lonely place (statement)
what a lonely place it is!
(exclamation)
ii. She has a very sweet voice.
(statement)
What a sweet voice she has!
(exclamation)
How sweet her voice is! (exclamation)
iii. He runs very fast. (statement)
How fast he runs! (exclamation)

Guidelines:
i. very is left out in exclamatory sentences.
ii. full stop is replaced by a note of exclamation.
iii. what/how is added and placed first.
iv. what is used with a noun :
what a lovely place! (not, how a lovely place!)
v. Notice how the position of a/an changes:
a) What + a/an + adjective + noun
What an important question!
b) How + a/an + adjective + noun
How important a question!

B. It + be + adjective
i) It is kind of you to help me (statement)
How kind of you to help me! (exclamation)
ii) It is foolish of him to throw stones on buses (statement)
How foolish of him to throw stones on buses! (exclamation)
iii) It is wise of her to anticipate these problems. (statement)
How wise of her to anticipate these problems! (exclamation)

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

no sooner did he ...
this is wrong.

Anonymous said...

ai sob diye 100`/. common bakolo dite pare.rubel das sinior examinar

Anonymous said...

sudent,teachar,gargiant please this sin are narro don`t keep it sagestion

Post a Comment